Chinese cabbage is an incredibly tasty and healthy vegetable. Not many gardeners decide to grow it in their garden, because they believe that it is too fastidious. Those who grew this crop are well aware that with proper planting and care, no problems will arise. Some people like to eat young leaves of Peking cabbage, others still wait until the whole heading has ripened. When can be considered ripe cabbage, and how to grow it in order to get a good harvest on time? Also in this article we will learn how to grow as many as 2 crops of Peking cabbage per season.
When to plant Chinese cabbage
To harvest Beijing cabbage in time, it is also necessary to plant it in time. From the timing of planting depends on whether the plant to bloom, and as you know, in the case of cabbage flowering can only harm. It is customary to sow cabbage starting April 15 and ending with the 20th. In warmer regions, one can begin even at the end of March. At the same time it is important that the frosts retreat completely.Attention! From April 20 to the end of July, sowing Peking cabbage is not advised. Due to the long daylight, arrows and flowers will start to appear on the plants.
Cabbage matures pretty quickly. With proper care, the crop can be harvested after 1.5 months. This plant is not afraid of cold. Seeds germinate even at + 4 ° C. But still, for active growth it is necessary that the temperature regime is not less than + 15 ° C. This is especially important to consider when growing cabbage in greenhouse conditions. It depends on the temperature, how generous the harvest you will collect.
How to grow 2 crops per season
The quality and quantity of the crop depends on the timing of planting. Basically cabbage matures quickly. However, it should be borne in mind that everything depends on the particular variety. Early ripening varieties ripen in 40 days, middle ripening in 2 months, and late cabbage will have to wait at least 80 days.Important! If the harvest of the Peking cabbage is not harvested in time, the plant will start sprouting, due to which the quality of the crop will suffer greatly.
Overriding fruits is not the only cause of the onset of flowering. Much depends on the timing of landing. If you do not have time to sow the seeds before April 20, then, most likely, the cabbage will plant flower stalks. If spring is late or you just did not have time to plant cabbage, you can buy special hybrid varieties that are not prone to flowering.
Immediately after harvesting the first crop, you can re-sow the seeds. This should be done no later than mid-August. After this period, the light day is greatly reduced and the cabbage simply does not have time to form heads. Also, it is not necessary to conduct experiments if the spring is cold and snowy. Planting cabbage in such extreme conditions definitely does not make sense.
Dates of harvest depending on the cabbage variety
Previously, only one variety of Peking cabbage was bred at the VIR station. It was called Khibinsky and was found on all farms that were engaged in the cultivation of cabbage. The variety has good characteristics and fast ripening. Young leaves are fully ready to eat within 30 days after germination. Full heading occurs within 40-50 days, and for a looser fruit it will take about 2 months.
For a long time, Khibiny cabbage satisfied all the demands of gardeners. And now the variety is very popular. Then they began to produce a large number of other, no less productive varieties and hybrids of this vegetable. We list only the most popular, as well as compare the magpies of maturation of each of the varieties.
It has medium early ripening. Full maturity occurs 55 days after the appearance of the first shoots. The head of cabbage is light green, wide and elongated. The weight of each cabbage can reach up to 1.5 kilograms.
Russian size F1 XXL
Probably, this is the variety with the largest heads. Anyone can weigh up to 4 kg. The variety is famous for its excellent taste. The leaves are incredibly juicy and crunchy. Russian size refers to late varieties, as the heads of cabbages mature no earlier than after 3 months. It has resistance to the appearance of peduncles. Easily tolerates low temperature.
The variety belongs to the middle ripening, as it matures 70 days after the appearance of the first shoots. It has yellow leaves inside and light green outside. It boasts exquisite taste. Contains a large amount of beneficial micronutrients and vitamins.
Full maturation of heads takes about 60-70 days after the appearance of young shoots. It tastes great, crunchy and juicy. Not suitable for long term storage. It is advised to eat fresh.
What you need cabbage for rapid growth
Beijing cabbage tolerates a cold climate, however, it has a low frost resistance. She is contraindicated to grow in a hot climate with a long day light. In such conditions, the plant does not have time to form a head, but begins to form arrows and bloom.
In order for the fruit to grow and develop well, the air temperature should be about + 20 ° C. It is also very important to water the plants in a timely manner and conduct regular feeding. In addition, cabbage is often attacked by some pests. Given this, it is necessary from time to time to carry out prevention.
To grow 2 or 3 cabbage harvests per season, you must create the appropriate conditions. Some gardeners manage to grow vegetables all year round in heated greenhouses. For the plant to develop well enough to maintain a temperature range from 15 to 21 ° C.Important! Cabbage shooting occurs when the temperature drops below + 13 ° C or rises above + 22 ° C.
Shooting is the most common problem faced by gardeners when growing Chinese cabbage. To prevent this, it is necessary:
- buy hybrids with resistance to flowering;
- do not sow seeds too thickly;
- plant and grow cabbage while light day is short. If necessary, you can cover the sprouts in the evening.
Care for Chinese cabbage consists of the following 3 steps:
- Loosening the soil.
- Regular watering.
- Thinning sprouts.
- Preventive measures against pests.
And now everything is in order. In order to harvest the cabbage in time, it is necessary to loosen the soil around the plants from time to time. This will ensure the access of oxygen to the root system of plants. This, in turn, will improve metabolic processes and the flow of water during irrigation.
Somehow in a special way to water the cabbage is not necessary. The main thing is that the soil is not too wet and dry. It must always be kept moist. Too wet soil is a breeding ground for pathogens. In such conditions, the cabbages will simply start to rot.Attention! If the summer is too rainy, you can build a canopy for the heads. This will protect the plants from rot.
Usually head cabbage watered 1 time in 7 days. If watering is more frequent, water stagnation may occur. The first dressing is done immediately after germination. If the cabbage is planted by the seedling method, then 2 weeks are counted from the moment of planting, and only then feeding is done. To do this, you can use both mineral and organic fertilizers. For example, many people use a solution of chicken manure or mullein. Korovyak bred in the ratio of 1/10, and chicken manure is calculated in the amount of 1 kilogram per 20 liters of water. Some gardeners prepare the soil for planting in advance. Many carry out soil treatment with solutions of superphosphate or urea.
It is necessary to thin out sprouts at both variants of cultivation. Both seedlings and plants sown in the open ground break through 2 times. The first time extra shoots pulled out at the stage of 2 leaves. At the same time between individual sprouts leave about 6-7 cm. The next thinning is carried out 10 days after the first. Planted cabbages in open ground should be at a distance of about 20-35 cm. Such an arrangement will ensure unobstructed exposure to sunlight and also allow the soil to dry out and not retain water.
It is necessary to ensure that fleas and cabbage flies do not eat your head before you. For the treatment of plants from pests, you can use ordinary wood ash. She just sprinkled bed before the first shoots. Also, some gardeners as a preventive from time to time scoop the old soil from the stalks and sprinkle this place with new soil (for example, from between rows). Thus, the soil is not only renewed, but the eggs laid by the cabbage fly are also harvested.Attention! Do not sprinkle the soil with ashes after the cabbage begins to dissolve the leaves.
If fleas or other pests still appear on the garden, then these activities will not help. You will have to use special drugs, such as "Fitoverm" or "Bitoksibatsillin." Just remember that you can apply them no later than a month before harvesting.
When to pick up cabbage
Cutting cabbages made in 2 cases:
- When young leaves grow to 10 cm in height.
- When fully formed head. This usually occurs 2 months or more after germination.
The weight of heads at the time of harvest should reach about 1.2 kg. Maybe more, it all depends on the variety you choose. Keep the cabbages in a cool place. Usually, Chinese cabbage retains its properties for 3 months from how it is cut. So keep the heads of cabbage until winter fresh is unlikely.
Of course, the most pleasant thing in growing any crops is harvesting. But in order to collect it in time it is necessary to work hard. As you can see, it is very important to sow the seeds in time and create suitable conditions for cultivation. Adhering to all the rules described above, you can get an excellent harvest of Peking cabbage.