Sometimes summer residents who have plots in the Moscow region do not plant grapes. This is explained by the harsh climatic conditions for the heat-loving plant and the difficulties of harboring. But in fact, not everything is so difficult. Growing grapes near Moscow is quite realistic and affordable. Let us dwell on the important points.
Very significant stage. The gardener has the following tasks:
- Properly choose a grape variety. In every culture there are species that are ideally suited to a particular region. So, for the suburbs you need to pick up grape varieties that calmly withstand the temperature drop. For example, "Laura", "Delight", "Kuban" or "Kodryanka" are considered to be resistant to cold.
- To choose the right place for the vineyard and to plant. The plant does not like areas that are heavily blown by the wind. In a quiet place and a powerful shelter is not needed.
- Maintain the depth of planting grapes in the suburbs. Landing should be deep enough. Of course, to deepen a sapling below the level of soil freezing is unrealistic, but it is better to stay at the maximum permissible level.
- Do not forget in the fall to feed grapes with potash fertilizers. In addition to food, they perform a warming function.
- In advance to take care of the option of shelter vine. The winters in the Moscow region are snowy, which will greatly facilitate the gardener’s autumn work on weatherization. And the snow cover will save the grapes from freezing. But about the materials and design you need to think before planting grapes on the site.
If each item is made responsibly, then already planted grapes in the Moscow region, can be covered in various ways. In order for the shelter to fully fulfill its protective function, plants are pre-cooked.
Preparation of plants before shelter
It is necessary to start preparing the grapevine for wintering at a certain time. Too early shelter is also harmful, as belated. If the vine is covered prematurely, then it is:
- do not have time to stock up enough nutrients for wintering;
- may become infected with a fungal infection or mock up due to excessively warm temperature under the shelter.
Late protection of the grapes is not able to prevent the freezing of the vine, especially young. Young shoots are covered as soon as the night temperature drops to -2 ° C. It is with such a small frost that the growth of shoots stops. But to uncover young grapes can only be in the plus index. Older vines are more resistant to frost, but you should not risk it either.
What is the preparation of the plant before the shelter? After the leaves fall, the grapes are removed from the support and the vine is bent to the ground. To fix the shoots, use metal staples. Good assistance will provide proper planting of grapes. If the angle of the vines is maintained during planting, then bending down will not be able to injure the plant.
Before bending the vine surely spend a competent pruning.
At the same time, certain shoots are chosen for wintering, they are treated with iron sulfate, the rest are cut.Important! Vine after bending should not have points of contact with the ground.
Such contact due to humidity will cause mold. To avoid this, it is recommended to lay wooden planks under the vine.
Do not use plastic wrap or fallen leaves. These materials will not save from moisture, but, on the contrary, will collect condensate.
Types of covering material for the vine
How to cover the grapes for the winter in the Moscow region? The method depends on the choice of covering material. And the main methods of shelter grapes are divided into three types:
- Hilling. It is carried out for young seedlings using a mound of up to 25 cm.
- Semi-cover. Cover only part of the grape above ground. The best materials are agrofibre or straw.
- Shelter full. It is with this method that the shoots are removed from the supports, they are cut, processed, bent to the ground and covered.
The third method is considered the most reliable for the Moscow region climate. What materials are used for this?
Natural - soil and snow. If it is planned to cover the vine with earth, then it is necessary to dig a groove, warm it with lapnik and lay a vine.
Then gently sprinkle with earth. The layer of the mound depends on the variety and topography of the site. When growing up the plants will need more reliable protection. It is easier to cover with snow, but for this purpose there must be confidence that the thickness of the snow cover will provide grapes protection throughout the winter. Otherwise, gardeners have to put up snow retention boards or manually fill up the snow.
What other material is harboring grapes in the Moscow region? There are several possible options, it remains for you to choose the most acceptable one:
- Wooden shields. They are installed on both sides of the shoots laid on the coasters. It turns out a small house of height, which many gardeners additionally beat the inside with roofing material.
Suitable for small vineyards. When mass plantings such a method requires a large consumption of wood.
- Agrofibre or film. In this method, a lap canopy is placed on top of a vine to improve thermal insulation. If you take the film, then it will have to be removed at a positive temperature. Therefore, choose what material you prefer to work with.
- Household tools at hand. As an independent shelter they are not used, only in combination with the ground. This may be spent slate sheets, plastic containers or the remnants of building stock, burlap. Here it is necessary to monitor the weight of the imposed cover, so as not to overload and damage the grapevine.
Do not take the ground for shelter near the bush. This leads to the exposure of the roots, their freezing and the death of the plant. Optimally retreat from the head of the bush for half a meter.
Use a three-layer shelter in the suburbs. For the first layer, take garden soil (from 5 to 15 cm), for the second - organic matter of the same thickness, for the third - loose soil 25 cm thick.
Provide additional protection to the roots, especially in the winters with little snow.
Be sure to carry out soil digging twice a year - in spring and autumn. So, you will ensure good absorption of moisture and reduce the risk of freezing of grapes.
In the snowy winter, do not rush to make a powerful shelter. The snow will perfectly protect the plants, just take it from the tracks and put it on the bushes.