Tomatoes, planted on time, take root quickly, without experiencing stress from changing conditions. But it is not always possible to follow the recommended time and seedlings can outgrow. To help tomatoes and get a good harvest, you need to take a set of measures.
The perfect look of ready-to-plant tomatoes:
- Formed 4 true sheets;
- Stem dense, with short internodes;
- The leaves are green, elastic;
- The stem color is purple;
- Height up to 20 cm.
If the planting time is delayed, the stem is pulled out thinning. The internodes increase, the formation of 3 and 4 pairs of true leaves begins. Bud formation may begin. During transplantation, these tomatoes are under severe stress, which significantly slows down the development and retards fruiting.
By appearance, you can determine how much seedlings have grown. Slightly overgrown tomatoes have a height of up to 30 cm, 4 leaves, growth accounted for lengthened internodes. Such seedlings do not require special measures before transplantation, hardening and good care are enough.
Medium overgrown seedlings up to 45 cm high, begins the formation of 3 pairs of leaves and buds. Planted in the ground, is ill for a long time, the first fruits may be the last.Important! If the time of transplantation is delayed, it is necessary to stop watering and move the tomatoes to a cooler room.
Strongly overgrown tomatoes more than 50 cm high, have more than 6 leaves, perhaps even flowering buds. If you plant such overgrown tomato seedlings in the ground, it can quickly die.
In overgrown seedlings significantly reduced immunity. To avoid the death of the plant, it is necessary to harden before planting tomatoes in a permanent place.
To start hardening, it is advisable to choose a cloudy, warm day with high humidity. In such conditions, tomato seedlings will experience the least stress. Tomatoes begin to make to the open air gradually. For the first time it will be enough 2 hours, with each day the time is increased. A week later, you can leave the tomatoes in the open air, covering them from a possible cooling.Tip! Hardening seedlings will be easier if it grew at a temperature of about 20 degrees and in bright light.
If tomato seedlings are transferred from an apartment to a greenhouse, it is enough to create high humidity for it, optimal temperature and cover it from the sun, gradually opening access to bright light for a longer period. The hardening process takes up to 2 weeks, after this period, shading is not required. In cloudy weather, seedlings can not be shaded.
Terms of planting overgrown seedlings
Determining the timing of planting overgrown tomato seedlings, it is necessary to focus on the temperature of the soil. Planted in cold ground, seedlings can get fungal diseases. Soil temperature should be at least 15 degrees Celsius. In most Russian regions, the open ground warms up to the desired temperature only in May, and in the more northern ones - in June.Tip! Popular observations recommend starting planting tomatoes in open ground, when crickets and cicadas begin to chatter in the evenings. This means that the ground is warm enough.
Indoor soil temperature is raised artificially. In addition to directly heating the greenhouse, you can use black film and heat, which is released during the decomposition of organic matter.
Before planting overgrown tomato seedlings, it is necessary to prepare a greenhouse. The soil is cleared of debris, dug over, make fertilizer. Manure, even puffed up, needs to be made carefully. A surplus of this fertilizer can harm tomatoes.
The greenhouse is washed from the inside, paying special attention to the joints and corners, insect larvae and fungal spores often winter in these places. After washing it is advisable to spray the walls with insecticides. The upper surface of the greenhouse can not be washed. Accumulated particles of dust and debris will create a filter from the sun's rays, which can burn unused leaves of seedlings. When tomatoes get used to new conditions, it usually takes 1 to 2 weeks; dirt from the outer surface is washed away so that the tomatoes receive more heat and light as they grow.Tip! It will be easier for tomatoes to grow if they are treated with growth stimulants during planting. They activate the internal processes in the plant, increasing immunity.
To transplant slightly overgrown seedlings, it is necessary to prepare pits in which the root system of tomatoes and a third of the stem can easily fit. As a rule, such a seedling does not require a stronger penetration. Seedlings gently planted in the prepared hole, covered with soil and plenty of warm water is poured.Tip! If the seedlings are medium overgrown, it is necessary to remove the lower leaves before transplanting. If left in the soil, they will start to rot.
The pit for tomato seedlings is prepared, focusing on the volume of the roots and the height of half of the stem. Usually there is enough pit 40 cm deep. Seedlings are placed in a pit not vertically, but slightly inclined. Thanks to the slanting planting, on the stem, which is dug into the ground, roots begin to form, which will allow the tomato bush to get more nutrients and give a better crop.Important! To begin the formation of roots, the soil must be constantly wet, but not wet.
In wet ground, the stems can rot. It is difficult to regulate humidity in the open ground; black plastic film can help. It is fixed on top of the soil around the trunk of a tomato.
Planted tomato seedlings bury, plentifully pour water with a temperature of about 20 degrees. It is advisable for a week to priten tomatoes so that they are easier to get used to the new conditions. It is impossible to feed tomatoes for 2 weeks, an exception can be made for potassium fertilizers in chelate form, which can improve the immunity of plants.
Strongly overgrown tomato seedlings a week before planting, it is desirable to cut. When pruning, remove the upper part by about a third, the lower leaves. Stalk when planting planted horizontally, slightly raising the remaining leaves above the ground. To begin the formation of roots, the soil must be constantly wet, to avoid frequent watering, the soil can be mulched.Tip! The top can be placed in a wet ground, where it will give roots very quickly, in two weeks the resulting seedlings can be planted in the ground.
As a rule, the yield of tomatoes obtained from the upper part of the trunk will be higher than that of the shrub that has grown from the rest of the seedlings.
Caring for established seedlings consists in timely watering, weeding and protection from insects and diseases.
Planting in open ground
Before planting seedlings in open ground to prepare the ground. To grow well, tomatoes need loose, well-drained, nutritious soil. To improve the structure, the soil is dug up twice - in the fall and spring. When autumn digging in the soil make rotten manure, humus. In the spring, they dig up the soil a second time, level it, make planting pits.
The size of the landing hole is usually 20-40 cm in height and the same in width. Complex fertilizers with a long-term effect are added to the pit, and, if necessary, humus is added.Tip! Before planting seedlings in the ground, you can treat it from harmful insects.
A good effect is given by soaking the roots of seedlings immediately before planting in the insecticide "Prestige". It provides protection from the Colorado potato beetle and Medvedka for 2 months, then the substance is removed from the plant. It is not recommended to use this tool for ultra early tomatoes.Important! Overgrown seedlings are planted in the open ground a little obliquely in order to increase the size of the root system and provide tomatoes with an additional area of nutrition.
If the seedlings of tomatoes are very much overgrown, you can place it horizontally, tying the top to the support.
Tomatoes gently bury, plentifully watered with warm water and pritenyayut. Planting of seedlings is necessary until the root system starts to fully feed the plant with water. Usually, it takes no more than a week for the roots to restore all functions.
Further care of the tomatoes consists in timely watering and weeding.
Let's sum up
Even under adverse conditions, you can get a good crop of tomatoes, you only need to carefully treat the plants and follow all the rules of cultivation.