Garlic is an undemanding crop that can grow on any soil. But to get a truly luxurious harvest, you need to know the rules for growing garlic, using fertilizers and applying them to your beds.
Preparation of beds
The rules for preparing garlic beds and applying fertilizers to them are the same for both the wintering season and spring planting of garlic.
For planting garlic, it is necessary to choose a bright area, with fertile soil, in the penumbra it develops slowly, often sick. The plant does not tolerate stagnant water, so you need to build a good drainage system.Tip! If the site often pours during the melting of snow or with intense precipitation, garlic is planted in ridges or high beds.
Garlic grows best on light, nutritious sandy soils with neutral acidity. If the characteristics of the soil in the garden are far from ideal, you can try to improve the performance in order to get a good harvest.
Heavy clay soils slow the development of garlic, it grows later than the term, the teeth are small. Winter garlic suffers the most from such a soil, clay soils often do not conduct water and air well, teeth in conditions of high humidity and low temperatures quickly rot.
To improve the structure of the soil in the garlic beds you can use the following additives, they can be combined or made separately:
- Dead manure
Sand is added during the digging of the soil, most often in the fall. 1-2 buckets of sand are added per square meter of soil; you can use river or obtained in quarries. Sand is sprinkled evenly over the garlic bed, after which the soil is dug up.
To improve the structure of the soil, you can make sawdust, any other than oak, as they contain substances that can inhibit the root system of plants. It is advisable to use well-rotted sawdust, as a rule, they have a dark brown or black color. Fresh sawdust during decay in the soil use a lot of nitrogen, the plant will be deficient in this substance.Tip! Superphosphate solution or other nitrogenous fertilizers can be added to the sawdust to avoid the deficiency of this element in the soil.
Humus and peat will perfectly improve the soil on garlic beds, in addition, they will enrich it with nutrients, they can be used as nitrogen fertilizers. 2 buckets of humus or peat are evenly sprinkled on a square meter of garlic beds, after which the soil is dug up by 20-25 cm.
Manure on garlic beds must be made carefully, excessive content can damage the garlic harvest. In small doses will be a good fertilizer. Poor rotted manure can be a source of spores of fungi that can cause fungal diseases in plants and infect the soil in the garden. It is advisable to treat the manure with fungicides before entering into the soil. Per square meter beds make up no more than half the bucket of manure.Important! Manure, humus and peat can also be a source of nutrients for garlic, it must be considered when they are applied simultaneously with complex chemical fertilizers.
In this case, the recommended dosage of the finished fertilizer is halved.
The high acidity of the soil does not allow the root system to fully absorb nutrients from fertilizers, the plant develops very poorly, the harvest will be poor. To avoid this, during the preparation of garlic beds along with fertilizers make substances that can reduce the acidity of the soil. You can use dolomite flour, lime.
Before digging garlic beds, it is desirable to introduce a complex fertilizer in order to avoid a deficiency of trace elements in the soil. Fertilizer must necessarily contain potassium, phosphorus, boron, calcium and nitrogen. Recommended doses of fertilizers are indicated in the instructions for the preparation.
Comprehensive fertilizer for garlic when planting choose, focusing on the reputation of the manufacturer and their own preferences. You can not buy fertilizer for garlic in random places, errors in storage can significantly degrade the performance of the tool.
Before planting, the head of garlic is disassembled, the large, dense, without stains and mechanical damage are removed. The softness of the teeth can be a sign of a bacterial or fungal disease, they will not give a good harvest.Important! For the sub-winter planting choose varieties intended for winter cultivation.
Varieties recommended for planting in the spring can freeze out even under cover. Preference is given to zoned varieties of garlic.
Selected garlic can be soaked for several hours in a solution of fertilizers and stimulants, it will help increase the supply of nutrients in the teeth, therefore, the shoots will be stronger, with good immunity. Fertilizers should include increased doses of potassium and magnesium, which contribute to the acceleration of photosynthesis, respectively, shoots will appear earlier.Tip! As a natural stimulant and fertilizer, you can use bee honey.
For soaking 1 kg of cloves of garlic will need a tablespoon of honey.
In addition to treatment with fertilizers, it is advisable to use disinfectants before planting garlic. Cloves can be injured when planted, treatment can help avoid infection with fungal and other diseases.
Fertilizer during growth
The first fertilizing is done when he has 3-4 feathers. This is a time of intensive growth, the most important trace elements - nitrogen and phosphorus, which contribute to the development of the root system and green mass. For winter garlic it is necessary to make magnesium fertilizers, they will help him to winter better.
The second feeding is carried out two weeks after the first. Nitrogen fertilizers this time do not make, you must select fertilizers that contain phosphorus, potassium and boron. You can use watering fertilizer under the root, or spraying the green parts of the plant. Spraying fertilizer solution is carried out in dry, windless weather, in the early morning.
The third fertilization is carried out three weeks after the second. This time it is necessary to make: nitrogen, potassium, boron, magnesium, phosphorus and other trace elements. You can use ready-made complex fertilizers for garlic, all components in them are in the correct proportions.
Further fertilization is carried out if necessary, focusing on the appearance of garlic. If there are no signs of nutrient deficiency, you can stop fertilization.Tip! To improve the ability of garlic to be stored, a month before digging it is fed with potash fertilizers.
For these purposes, wood ash can be used. To speed up the absorption of the chemical element, use a solution for 2 liters of water will need 5 tablespoons of wood ash.
Signs of micronutrient deficiencies
The lack of trace elements can be determined by the appearance of the plant.
This chemical element promotes the growth of garlic.
If there is not enough nitrogen in the soil, the growth of the plant is stopped, the formation of the bulb stops. Garlic completes the growing season ahead of time, garlic heads turn out to be very small.
Externally, the lack of nitrogen can be seen by changing the color of the leaves - they lose their color intensity, noticeably lagging behind.
Affects the keeping quality of garlic.
Lack of potassium retards the growth of garlic, reduced resistance to drought and other adverse factors. Leaves with a deficiency of potassium brighten, starting from the veins, gradually spots spread to the entire leaf. The tips of the garlic dry up, gradually the entire leaf begins to dry.Important! Excessively high doses of potassium interfere with the absorption of magnesium, it is important to maintain a balance.
Contributes to the formation of the bulb, the development of the root system, improve the ability to resist adverse factors.
Lack of phosphorus causes a stop in the development of the root system, garlic stops growing. The shortage can be seen on the dark green leaves, sometimes with a bronze shade, the roots of garlic are small, underdeveloped.
Promotes metabolic processes in garlic, growth and immunity. The lack of this trace element reduces the ability of the plant to hibernate, slows the development and the formation of cloves.
The deficiency is characterized by reddish leaves, the veins may remain green. Starts with lower leaves.Important! In the process of vegetation, it is desirable to use foliar fertilizer application, so that the trace elements will get inside the plant faster.
Participates in all growth processes, promotes the formation of seeds.
The deficiency is expressed in chlorosis of young leaves, which are closer to the middle of the plant. Later edges and tops of leaves dry up.Important! High doses of boron can get large, beautiful heads. However, they are stored very poorly, easily germinating or rotting.
Rules for growing garlic are simple, careful use of fertilizers and following the recommendations will help grow a rich harvest of garlic, regardless of the vagaries of the weather.