Growing garlic is a fairly simple matter, so gardeners do not always pay proper attention to it. Although with the right approach and the use of fertilizers, it is possible to grow a crop that is incomparable with that obtained when garlic is left to itself. This is particularly well known to those who practice growing this plant for sale. After all, with proper and timely fertilizing, you can get almost twice the amount of garlic.
The bigger problem is sometimes the answer to the question: what fertilizer for garlic to choose in order to get the most out of it and not harm? After all, it must be remembered that garlic is a culture that is very sensitive to the concentration of mineral salts in the soil; therefore, it is impossible to make high doses of mineral fertilizers at the same time. Therefore, when feeding garlic, it is necessary to comprehensively approach the implementation of this procedure, using, if possible, various types of fertilizers in different periods of development.
To select the correct timing of garlic supplements, you need to consider all the features of its growth and development.Attention! Experienced gardeners know that there are two main varieties of garlic: winter and spring.
Winter garlic is usually characterized by early ripeness (the growing season is 80 to 120 days), good yield (up to 1.5 kg per square meter), but it is stored only for a short time. It is usually grown for consumption in the fall and early winter. The bulbs and teeth of winter varieties themselves are often large (the bulbs can reach 50-60 g in mass), there are few chives in the bulb (4–9 on average). All the teeth are located around the stem located in the center of the bulb.
Spring garlic has small onion size (20-30 grams), there are many more bulbs in the bulb (15 to 30 pieces), there is no stem in the middle. Spring varieties are usually late-ripening (the growing season is 80-150 days), less fruitful (0.5-0.8 kg per 1 sq. Meter), but well kept until spring, and sometimes even until the next harvest.
Winter garlic, according to its name, is planted in autumn, before winter, and spring - in spring. Hence the difference in the timing of their dressings.
Requirements of garlic to soil
And for winter and spring garlic is very important choice of suitable soil for cultivation.
- For both species, the soil must be fertile with a neutral reaction or close to it. Garlic does not like sour soils.
- Winter varieties prefer sandy soils, while light and medium loamy soils are most suitable for spring soils. Spring varieties of garlic feel quite good even on light alkaline soils.
- For garlic unsuitable areas with high groundwater levels or lowering in relief with the possibility of flooding.
- The best predecessors in the garden for garlic are legumes, cucumbers, cabbage and potatoes.
When planting garlic in the autumn before winter, it is necessary that the planting material forms a good root system, but the active growth of the above-ground leaf part would not begin. Garlic beds are usually fertilized in the fall by applying organic fertilizer several weeks before planting. Most often for these purposes they use compost or humus (rotted manure), since their effect on plants is not so rapid, but longer in time. For each square meter of planting make about one bucket of organic matter.Attention! It is forbidden to make fresh manure for planting - this can provoke an increase in the number of fungal diseases and the death of plants.
Together with organic matter, it is very important to add superphosphate and potassium sulfate to the ground for the beds before planting garlic. Application rates are recommended as follows:
1 tablespoon of superphosphate and 0.5 tablespoon of potassium sulfate per square meter of planting.
This amount is enough for the plants to take root well and survive the winter safely. It is to ensure that garlic leaves do not go intensively into growth, nitrogen fertilizers are not specially applied for the winter.
But in the spring - a completely different thing. Even before the final snowfall, the first shoots of winter garlic usually appear out of the ground. As soon as the seedlings reach 10-12 cm in length, produce the first dressing of garlic in the spring. Since at this moment fertilizing is used for intensive plant growth, it is most often used mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen: urea or ammonium nitrate.
One tablespoon is dissolved in a 10-liter bucket of water. One bucket is usually enough for watering 5 square meters. meters of landings. In early spring, when there is an excess of moisture, fertilizing is usually carried out instead of watering, so that the plant roots do not have an excess of moisture. If the spring is warm and dry, then before dressing the garlic beds must be shed with water.Important! For the first time, spring garlic is usually fed with the same solution, but much later - when it has 3-4 leaves.
The second dressing is traditionally carried out 10-15 days after the first one, which is for winter crops, and for spring varieties.
For its implementation it is advisable to use any complex fertilizer. Most often for this purpose they use nitroammofosku, which contains all three major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in equal proportions. Usually, it is bred in the following proportions: 2 tablespoons of the fertilizer are diluted in water of 10 liters, and garlic bed is watered, spending this volume on 3 - 5 square meters of land.
Experienced gardeners are advised to hold and third dressing of garlic for a few weeks before the moment when he begins to shrink the leaves. Usually it is produced somewhere in the middle or end of June, depending on the variety of garlic: winter varieties - earlier, and spring varieties - later.
For these purposes, the most commonly used solution of superphosphate. In 10 liters of water 2 tablespoons of fertilizer are diluted and watered with the resulting solution of a bed with plants.Comment! Since superphosphate is rather difficult to dissolve in water, it is better to fill it with hot water and insist on the day before the feeding procedure.
It is important to clearly guess the timing of the third feeding, which is responsible for the growth of the bulbs themselves. If you are late with it, then the leaves will begin to shrink and there will be practically no sense from it; if it is carried out too early, all its power can go to the leaves, and not to the bulbs. It is best to focus on the size of the leaves - if they have reached the maximum size, then you can feed.
Top dressing with organic
Garlic loves organic matter, so it usually responds well to fertilizing with natural fertilizers. Immediately after the winter cold, the sprouts of winter varieties can be treated with diluted slurry.
Bred it in the proportion of 1:10 and water the plants near the roots, trying not to touch the leaves, in order to avoid burns. If you wish to add other nutrients, you can sprinkle the earth around the garlic bushes with wood ash and pour water on top of it.
Ash solution can also shed garlic plants several more times per season. To prepare it, 2 liters of ash are diluted in a 10-liter watering can and plants are watered instead of water at the root.
Use for fertilizing this plant and a solution of chicken manure, but very carefully. It is diluted at a ratio of 1:15 and during watering it is monitored so that the solution does not get on the leaves.
When answering the question: “What kind of fertilizers for garlic are the best?” It is important to remember that everything depends on the timing of fertilizing and the specific situation with the plants.Important! In early spring, garlic has a great need for nitrogen, and in the middle and by the end of the growing season there is a need for phosphorus and potassium.
In addition, mineral fertilizers act quickly, but they are easier to harm sensitive garlic, if you accidentally overdo it with doses. Perhaps, ash is the only fertilizer that is not capable of harming plants, but it does not contain nitrogen and in the early spring it is still desirable to use something else that is nitrogen-containing. Of the so-called folk remedies well liquid ammonia, the use of which may well replace urea. If you dilute 2 tablespoons of ammonia in 10 liters of water, then this solution can be both watered and sprayed garlic beds.
When any fertilizer is diluted in water and used for spraying plants, this is called foliar fertilization. They are very effective in adverse weather conditions, when the roots hardly absorb food from the soil. Garlic foliar dressing allows you to feed the plants through the leaves. This is the fastest way to help plants with a lack of one or another nutrient, because garlic, like any plant, absorbs nutrients several times faster through leaves than through roots.
For some reason, foliar top dressings for garlic are not very common, but for “first aid” plants, for example, when the leaves turn yellow, they can serve a good service. Most often, for foliar feeding of garlic, the same solutions are used as for irrigation, but only diluted three or even four times.Attention! Never use too concentrated solutions for foliar feeding of garlic - it can do even more harm than good.
If the weather is calm and overcast, then spraying the leaves can be done at any time of the day. But in sunny weather, it can only be done early in the morning or in the evening after sunset, so that the leaves do not receive additional burns.
It is important to remember that it is always better to underfed a little more than garlic than to overfeed. Top dressing necessarily needed on poor, depleted soils, under adverse weather conditions. In all other cases, it is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the plants and if garlic grows well and develops quickly, then the next feeding can be postponed.