For the cultivation of high yields, timely fertilization of tomatoes is essential. They will provide seedlings with nutrition and will accelerate its growth and fruit formation. To feed the tomato was effective it is necessary to produce it correctly, in compliance with the timing and amount of minerals.
The composition and frequency of fertilizer use depends on several factors - the type of soil, the place of cultivation of tomatoes, the condition of the seedlings.
Under the tomatoes should prepare the soil in the fall. When digging into the ground add manure, humus, phosphate and potash fertilizers. If the soil is loamy, you must add peat or sawdust. Sour - lime.
The table shows the proportions that should be observed when applying fertilizers for tomatoes:
5 kg / sq. m
5 kg / sq. m
5 kg / sq. m
5 kg / sq. m
5 kg / sq. m
5 kg / sq. m
Trace elements needed for tomatoes
Seedlings should receive all minerals in sufficient quantities. By its appearance, you can determine the deficiency of an element:
- with a lack of nitrogen, growth slows down, bushes wither, and tomato leaves become paler;
- fast-growing lush bushes indicate an excess of nitrogen and the need to reduce it;
- when phosphorus is deficient, leaves turn purple in color, and when it is abundant, they fall off;
- if there is too much phosphorus in the soil, and there is not enough nitrogen and potassium, the leaves of the tomatoes begin to curl.
The main quantities of essential plant minerals are obtained using the root system, so they are introduced into the soil. The composition and amount of fertilizers vary depending on the growth stage of the tomatoes, soil fertility and weather. For example, if it was cool summer and few sunny days, you need to increase the potassium content in the dressing for tomatoes.
All known fertilizers for tomatoes are divided into two large groups. Minerals include inorganic substances.
They have such advantages as:
- getting a quick effect;
- low cost;
- ease of transportation.
Of the nitrogen fertilizers for tomatoes, urea is usually used. It is introduced with nitrogen starvation of plants up to 20 g per well. From potash it is better to choose potassium sulfate, since tomatoes react negatively to the presence of chlorine. With a deficiency of potassium, its sulphate salt will be an excellent feeding for tomatoes. Mineral substance - superphosphate is the best fertilizer for any type of soil.
Organic fertilizers are represented by manure, peat, compost, green fertilizers in the form of herbs. With the help of manure, microelements and nutrients are introduced into the soil, and the vegetable mass contains compounds of potassium, calcium, magnesium. Organic fertilizers promote healthy tomato growth.
Types of dressings
Feeding tomatoes produced in two ways. Root - is to water the bushes under the root of fertilizers dissolved in water.Important! It should be carried out carefully, not allowing the solution to fall on the tomato leaves, otherwise they may burn.
When foliar feeding tomatoes nutrient solution sprayed leaves and stems. The concentration of the solution for the treatment of bushes should be much less. This method quickly saturates the seedlings with micronutrients and saves fertilizer. Spraying is carried out in small doses, but often. It is not advisable to use chlorinated water. Many gardeners prefer to collect rain.
Feedings seedlings before planting in the ground
The first feeding of tomatoes is recommended after the appearance of two leaves. Dilute the urea solution and water the seedlings.
After 7-8 days, the second feeding of tomatoes is done - this time with bird droppings. Litter in half with water is aged for two days, and diluted 10 times before use. After such feeding the seedlings will give a good growth.
Before planting tomatoes, for 5-6 days, you can feed them again with a solution of ash.
Tomatoes require food and after planting in the ground, for the season they should be three or four. You need to start after the adaptation of seedlings to new conditions - in about a week or two.
To strengthen the roots, formation of ovaries, phosphate and potash fertilizers are necessary. It is better not to abuse ammonium nitrate, otherwise nitrogen will ensure rapid growth of seedlings and lush greenery, but the number of ovaries will decrease.
Many gardeners, instead of mineral fertilizers, prefer to use folk remedies for feeding tomatoes:
- Ash top dressing is one of the best - ash contains almost all trace elements useful for tomatoes;
- organic fruits are also beneficial with bird droppings and manure until the fruit begins;
- Herbal infusions will become an excellent liquid fertilizer - an infusion of young nettle gives a particularly good effect, since potassium, nitrogen and iron accumulate in its leaves.
What kind of fertilizer is needed for tomatoes, each gardener decides for himself.Tip! For the formation of strong ovaries and fruits, it is necessary to sprinkle tomatoes with a weak solution of boric acid.
To disinfect the soil, seedlings should be watered with a solution of pale pink manganese.
Folk remedies for fertilizing
An excellent stimulator of tomato growth is egg shell infusion. He prepares simply, like all folk remedies. The crushed shells from three eggs are poured with three liters of water and infused until the smell of hydrogen sulfide. The solution is diluted and used for watering seedlings.
It is useful to feed the tomatoes with yeast. Thanks to them:
- the soil under the tomatoes is enriched with beneficial microflora;
- root system becomes more powerful;
- seedlings become hardier and good against disease.
The recipe for making a yeast solution is simple. Baker's yeast can be used in briquettes, but sachets of dry yeast are also suitable. In a bucket of warm water should be dissolved 2.5 teaspoons of dry funds, add a spoon or two sugars and insist day. Each bush is watered at the root.
Yeast top dressing for tomatoes goes well with ash or herbal infusion, but it should not be done more than twice in summer - for the first time, about 14-15 days after planting, and the second - before flowering.
Easy to prepare and fertilizer for tomatoes from herbs. In a barrel or other spacious container all weeded grass from the beds is added up, a small amount of nettle and filled with water. To speed up the fermentation, add some sugar or old jam to the mix - about two tablespoons in a bucket of water. Then the barrel is covered with a lid or old bag until the end of fermentation.
Important! Before use, the concentrate should be diluted to avoid burns.
The period of formation of ovaries
The timing of the second feeding of tomatoes is associated with the beginning of fruiting. At this time, you can use a solution of iodine - four drops on a bucket of water. Iodine will increase the resistance of tomatoes to fungal diseases, as well as accelerate the formation of fruits.
You can prepare a comprehensive dressing for tomatoes according to the following recipe:
- 8 cups of wood ash pour boiling water in a volume of five liters and stir;
- After cooling the solution, add ten grams of dry boric acid;
- pour ten drops of iodine and insist 24 hours.
Before use, you need to dilute ten times and water the bushes of tomatoes.
According to the scheme of feeding the tomatoes, the following processing is carried out after a break of two weeks. For her, prepare a mixture that contains all the necessary substances:
- two-thirds of the ground mass of nettle and dandelion with the addition of manure are put into a large container;
- the container is filled with water and covered with film;
- the mixture should ferment for ten days.
Before feeding tomatoes in a bucket of water is taken one liter of concentrate. Watering is done at the root - three liters per bush. To speed up ripening and improve the keeping quality of tomatoes, you can feed tomatoes with a tincture of infusion at the end of July.
If the seedlings are distinguished by a weak thin stem, a small number of small leaves and poor flowering, foliar dressings of tomatoes will do well:
- yellow leaves with a lack of nitrogen can be removed with a diluted solution of ammonia;
- during the formation of ovaries, seedlings are treated with a solution of superphosphate;
- iodine solution with added milk;
- boric acid;
- weak potassium permanganate solution;
- from the rot on the tops of the bushes and from the tick will help the solution of nitric acid calcium;
- Tomato seedlings are simply transformed by regularly spraying the leaves with a weak solution of hydrogen peroxide in water, as their cells are filled with atomic oxygen;
- effectively coping with late blight copper sulphate solution;
- with a shortage of potassium, a three-day infusion of banana peel can be used as a fertilizer for tomatoes;
- against diseases an excellent remedy is an infusion or decoction of onion peel.
As a feed for tomatoes, many gardeners prepare the product from several components - boric acid, copper sulfate, magnesia, potassium permanganate and shavings of laundry soap, dissolved in water. Such a complex foliar top dressing will enrich tomatoes with essential minerals, strengthen leaves and ovaries, while disinfecting them from pathogenic microflora. To protect the leaves from burns, it is necessary to dilute it.
When making dressings for tomatoes, you must follow certain rules in order not to harm the bushes and get a greater effect from the treatment:
- the solution should not be too cold or hot; sharp temperature drops should be avoided;
- each new tool is first tested on a single plant;
- we must remember that tomatoes do not like excess organics;
- top dressing of tomatoes should be carried out in the evening;
- Do not make root dressing of tomatoes on dry soil, you must first water the bushes with water, otherwise they may get burned;
- Tomato leaves can also get burned when liquid fertilizer is dropped on them.
Top dressing for tomatoes in greenhouses
In greenhouses, the initial feeding of tomatoes should be made 15-20 days after their transplantation. Liquid fertilizer is prepared by dissolving 25 g of urea and 15 g of potassium sulfate in a volume of 10 liters of water. Consumption for watering is one liter per bush.
The second time the bushes of tomatoes are fed up, with their mass flowering. Feeding tomatoes is necessary for the appearance of strong ovaries in the next stage. A bucket of mortar consumes a tablespoon of potash fertilizer and half a liter of bird droppings and manure. Each bush should receive up to one and a half liters of fluid. If there is a shortage of organic matter, you can add a tablespoon of nitrophobia. To prevent the occurrence of vertex rot on tomatoes, they should be sprayed with calcium nitrate - a tablespoon on a bucket.
When the ovaries are formed, the feeding of tomatoes is carried out with a solution of ash (2 l), boric acid (10 g) in a bucket of hot water. For better dissolution the liquid is infused for 24 hours. Each bush consumes up to one liter of solution.
Once again, fertilizer for tomatoes is used for mass fruiting to improve the taste of fruits and accelerate their ripening. For watering, a tablespoon of liquid sodium humate with two spoons of superphosphate is taken on a bucket.
Terms of dressing tomatoes can be adjusted depending on the climate, soil composition, condition of the seedlings. Each gardener decides for himself, based on his experience, what kind of feedings to choose. It is important to provide tomatoes with all the necessary substances to get a rich and tasty harvest.